The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) is an arbitral court set up by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), based in Lausanne – Switzerland.  Its aim is to resolve issues directly or indirectly related to sport (cases between clubs, athletes and federations or others related).  The CAS was established in 1984, in response to the need for a forum to solve the world sporting conflicts and due to the benefits related to the creation of a proper court to deal with these specific subjects.  Initially it was subordinate to the IOC, who funded its expenses and appointed its arbitrators.

In 1992, after a decision was referred to the Supreme Court of Switzerland, the CAS was recognised as a true arbitral tribunal.  However, it was recommended that it should have greater in...

Insurance Act 2015 - Principais Alterações

No próximo mês, uma nova Lei de Seguros, denominada “Insurance Act 2015”, entrará em vigor no Reino Unido substituindo a centenária Lei de Seguros Marítimos (“Marine Insurance Act”) de 1906. A maioria dos artigos da nova lei serão aplicados aos contratos de seguro, resseguro e retrocessão celebrados após o dia 12 de agosto de 2016.

O Insurance Act 2015 introduz grandes alterações na legislação de seguros e resseguros na Inglaterra, País de Gales, Escócia e Irlanda do Norte, jurisdições tradicionalmente conhecidas como pró-seguradora. O objetivo da nova lei será o de compensar o desequilíbrio com as normas internacionais, buscando uma harmonização dos remédios jurídicos previstos na legislação do Reino Unido e em outras tantas jurisdições, incluindo a brasileira.

Com apenas algumas semanas até a entrada da nova lei em vigor, ex...

Force Majeure Type Clauses

There are a number of contractual provisions, such as force majeure, hardship and price review clauses that are currently being examined by the courts, as corporates attempt to find ways of discharging their obligations from burdensome contracts.  For example, Australia's Fortescue Metals Group is relying on a force majeure clause in arbitration proceedings in London after it suspended all of its long-term shipping contracts as a result of the financial crisis, which it says triggered a sharp fall in Chinese steel production and consequently a collapse in iron ore demand.

The English courts have interpreted both force majeure and hardship clauses as being of the same category of clauses.  They are considered “boiler plate” clauses and have an effect of contracting out of the common law doctrine of frustration.  Although some jurisdictions vary in...

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